Questioned Typewriting

A Compilation of Citations Relating to The Examination of Questioned Typewritten Documents
First Edition

Compiled by Jacqueline A. Joseph, D-BFDE

Published by JT Research LLC.
Portland, Oregon
October 2003

Download a pdf version of this document here.

 

“Though a man learns but little that he definitely can catalogue, there certainly is nothing more necessary to his continued intellectual development than this fixed habit of coming into mental contact with other minds.”

—Albert S. Osborn, “The Problem of Proof (1922)” and “Questioned Documents (1929)”

 

“Consider what you have in the smallest chosen library. A company of the wisest and wittiest men that could be picked out of all civil countries, in a thousand years, has set in best order the results of their learning and wisdom. The men themselves were hid and inaccessible, solitary, impatient of interruption, fenced by etiquette; but the thought which they did not uncover to their bosom friends is here written out in transparent words to us, the strangers of another age.”

—Ralph Waldo Emerson, Poet

 

“Each age has its crimes, with the corresponding protective measures, – all alike the product of the age’s conditions.   In each age, crime takes advantage of conditions, and then society awakes and gradually overtakes crime by discovering new expedients.”

—John Wigmore, Dean of Northwestern University Law School. 1910

 

Table of Contents

BOOKS

SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS

Identification of Typewritten Documents – General

Identification of a Typewriter – General

Identification of Typewritten Documents – Special Problems

Alignment Problems

Reinsertion Problems

Number of Copies

Carbon Copies

Dating of Typewritten Documents

Identification of a Typewriter – Printwheel  & Single Element Typewriters

Identification of a Typewriter – IBM Selectric

Identification of Fonts

Identifying the Typist

Admissibility of Typewritten Evidence

AUTHOR INDEX

SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL INDEX

A. Although the total compiled here are of 36 articles, 5 books, it cannot be claimed that this bibliography is complete. This is a selected bibliography. Other areas of consideration regarding typewriting and typewritten documents require further pursuit.

B. Many of the works listed have extensive bibliographies to which the readers’ attention is also specifically directed.

C. The author’s biographic footnote is contemporaneous to the date of publication.

D. Books and articles are listed separately.  Articles are listed by topic. Entries are arranged alphabetically by journal title.

E. Most citations were drawn from “The QDE Index” by Marcel B. Matley of A & M Matley Handwriting Experts of California.

F. Jan Tudor of JT Research and Marcel B. Matley of A&M Handwriting Experts served as research assistants. They searched the UCSF Medical Library and other academic libraries.

 

BOOKS

 

Kelly,  Jan Seaman. Significant Dates of Modern Typing Methods, (Houston; The American Board of Forensic Document Examiners, Inc., undated).

Bates, Billy Prior. Typewriting Identification (I.S.Q.T.): Identification System for Questioned Typewriting, (Springfield, IL, Charles C. Thomas, 1971).

AMERICAN JURISPRUDENCE PROOF OF FACTS

Questioned Typewriting. Volume 20:265-273. 1968.

Questioned Typewriting. Volume 20 Supplement:37-41. July 2000.
American Jurisprudence AJ2.  29:895-908, 1967. Evidence.  XII. Real or documentary evidence.  E. Comparison of writing.  1. Handwriting or signatures.  2. Typewriting or printing [mechanical].


ARTICLES BY SUBJECT

 

Identification of Typewritten Documents – General

  1. Identification News.  29:6-10, Nov. 1979. Identification of typewritten documents.  Patel, Purushottam Hathibhai.
  2. Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology and Police Science.  50:420-5, Nov.-Dec. 1959. Influence of variation on typewriting identification.  Hilton, Ordway.
  3. Chicago Legal News.  55:221+, Feb. 1, 1923. Identification of typewritten forgery. Helmer, Bradwell B,
  4. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. June 1981. “Examination of a Typewritten Document.” David W. Attenberger and W. Gary Kanaskie.
  5. American Law Reports.  106:721-37, 1937. Questions of evidence in the inspection and examination of typewritten documents and typewriting machines.  {In re Bundy’s Estate, 153 OR 234, 56 P2 313 (1936)}
  6. Forensic Science Communications.  3:#2, April 2001. Handwriting, typewriting, shoeprints, and tire treads:  FBI Laboratory’s Questioned Documents Unit.  Held, Dorothy-Anne E.
  7. Scientific Sleuthing Review.  22:10-3, Spring 1998. The F.B.I. in peace and war and typewriter examination:  Who is to blame for Robert Wayne O’Ferrell’s ordeal?  {O’Ferrell v U.S. and Brannan, 968 FS 1519 (D.M.D. AL 1997)}  In search of a search warrant:  What might/should have happened in U.S. v Robert Wayne and Mary Ann O’Ferrell?  {U.S. v Moody, 762 FS 1485, 762 FS 1491 (N.D. GA 1991}

Identification of a Typewriter – General

  1. International Criminal Police Review.  183:321-5, Dec. 1964. The identification of makes of typewriters. Report to the General Assembly of the I.C.P.O. Interpol at its 33rd session in Caracas on October 6, 1964.
  2. Journal of Police Science and Administration.  5:393-8, Dec. 1977. Explainable differences revealed by supplementary typewriting standards. Osborn, Paul A.

Identification of Typewritten Documents – Special Problems: Alignment Problems

10.  Forensic Science Society. Journal.  30:225-41, July-August 1990. Measurement of the alignments of typewritten characters; preliminary findings.  Hardcastle, R. A. and P. Patel.

11.  Journal of Forensic Science.  10:23-33, Jan. 1965. A Deep Look Into Typewriter Alignment.  Nemecek, Joe.

12.  Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology and Police Science.  48:219-23, July-Aug. 1957.Identification of typewriting; problems encountered with shaded and proportional alignments. Hilton, Ordway.

Identification of Typewritten Documents – Special Problems: Reinsertion Problems

13.  Journal of Forensic Science.  32:245-7, Jan. 1987. Was the document reinserted in the typewriter?  Horan, James J.

Identification of Typewritten Documents – Special Problems: Number of Copies

14.  Forensic Science International.  15:141-7, March-April 1980. Mathematical determination of the number of copies of a typewritten document. DelPicchia, Celso Mauro.

Identification of Typewritten Documents – Special Problems: Carbon Copies

15.  Forensic Science International.  21:227-31, May-June 1983. Was a carbon copy also typewritten?  Hilton, Ordway.

Dating of Typewritten Documents

16.  Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology and Police Science.  51:373-7, Sept.-Oct. 1960. Dating typewriting by an analysis of variable defects.  Hilton, Ordway

Identification of a Typewriter – Printwheel & Single Element Typewriters

17.  Journal of Forensic Science.  33:328-35, March 1988. Class defects in printwheel typescript.  Behrendt, James E.

18.  Journal of Forensic Science.  32:629-39, May 1987. Printwheel typescript variations caused by the manufacturing process.  Behrendt, James E.  and Robert J. Muehlberger.

19.  Forensic Science International.  47:249-59, Oct. 1990. Distribution of damage defects among characters of print wheel typing elements. Allen, M. J. and R.A. Hardcastle.

20.  Forensic Science International.  43:125-57, Oct.-Nov. 1989. Classification of printwheel typestyles by measuring the size of characters with an image processing system.  An initial evaluation using courier 10 and elite 12 printwheels. Catterick, T., D.A. Hickman, and J.R. Russell

21.  Forensic Science International.  30:267-74, April 1986. Progressive damage to plastic printwheel typing elements.  Hardcastle, R. A.

22.  Forensic Science International.  30:53-63, Jan. 1986. Problems in identifying work from print wheel typewriter.  Hilton, Ordway.

23.  Forensic Science Communications.  1:part 1, Oct. 1999. Source of significant typeface defects on electronic typewriter printwheels. Anthony, Author T.

24.  Journal of Forensic Sciences. 33:328-335, March 1988. “Class Defects in Printwheel Typescript.” James E. Behrendt.

25.  Journal of Forensic Sciences. 32:629-639, May 1987. “Printwheel Typescript Variations Caused by the Manufacturing Process.” Behrendt, James E. and Robert J. Muehlberger.

26.  Canadian Society of Forensic Science Journal.  16:19-38, March 1983. Differentiation of printwheel and conventional typescript.  Estabrooks, Colin B.

27.  American Society of Forensic Science Journal.  1:117-20, December 1998. Cause of typewriter printwheel damage observed in the questioned document.  Moryan, Donald D.

Identification of a Typewriter – IBM Selectric Typewriters

28.  Forensic Science International.  13:15-24, Jan-Feb. 1979. Single element typewriters.  Levinson, Jay.

29.  Forensic Science. 10:187-201, 1977. Interchangeability of single element fonts. Levinson, Jay.

30.  Journal of Forensic Science.  7:286-302, July 1962. Identification of the work from an IBM Selectric typewriter: A preliminary consideration of the problem.  Hilton, Ordway.

Identification of Fonts

31.  Forensic Science Society. Journal.  30:137-42, May-June 1990. Classification scheme for courier typestyles.  Allen, M. J. and R. A. Hardcastle

32.  Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology and Police Science.  47:257-9, July-August 1956. Test plate for proportional spacing typewriter examination.  Hilton, Ordway.

33.  Journal of Police Science and Administration.  4:134-78, June 1976. Differentiation of pica monotone typewriting.  Crown, David A.

Identifying the Typist

34.  Canadian Society of Forensic Science Journal. 15:42-9, March 1982. “Identifying the Typist of Anonymous Letters.” Dawson, Greg A.

Admissibility of Typewritten Evidence

35.  FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin.  29:22, October 1960. Writing standards must be admissible for court testimony.

36.  American Law Reports 4.  36:598-610, 1985. Admissibility of evidence as to linguistics or typing style (forensic linguistics) as basis of identification of typists or author.  {In re Estate of Paul Ciaffoni, 498 PA 267, 446 A2 225 (1982), cert den in Cowden v Ciaffoni (1982) 495 US 1036, 74 L Ed 2d 602, 103 S Ct 447}  Donaldson, Russell G.

 

AUTHOR INDEX

Alford, Jr., Edwin F.   43

Bain, P.G., et al.   36

Baker, J. Newton, LL.M., J.D.   IX

Blueschke, A.   12

Boatwright, Deborah E., B.S.   13

Brumlik, Joel, M.D., Ph.D.   X

Buquet A., et al.   10

Burton, Allen W., et al.   23

Carney, Brian B.   2

Chédru, François, et al.   21

Conway, James V.P.   IV

Dash, M.S.   31

Eichhorn, T.E., et al.   32

Elble, Rodger J.   37, 38, XIII

Franck, Frankie E., M.F.S.   45

Gilbertson, Beryl, M.A., C.Crim.   9

Gilmour, C., et al.   3

Goodman, Jerome, M.D., et al.   20

Gottschalk, Louis A., M.D.   34

Hagan, William E.   I

Hammond, Derek L.   50

Harrison, Wilson R.   41, XII

Herkt, A.   46

Hilton, Ordway.   26, 28

Hirsch, M.W., Jarvik, et al.   5

Hooten, Anne.   27

Jankovic, J., et al.   6

Klawans, Harold L., M.D.   40

Koehler, Peter J., et al.  33

Lawans, Harold L., et al.

Legien, Marek.   16

Lewinson, Thea Stein.   15

Matley, Marcel B.  51, 52, II, VI

Melcher, Webster A.  18, 19

Miller, Larry S.   30

Mühl, Anita M., M.D., F.A.C.P.    17

Nomoto, Masahiro, et al.   35

Osborn, Albert S.   VIII, XI

Pai, Narsimha M.   29

Puri, K.S.  1, 8

Purtell, David J., Ph.B.   4

Quant, Leslie.   42

Rabin, Albert, et al.   7

Saudek, Robert.   V

Smyth, Mary M., et al.  22

Soland, Valerie, L.   39

Stangohr, Gordon R.   48

Sulner, Hanna F.   14

Toomey, Rose LaJoie.   VII

Tripp, Clarence A.   11

van Doorn, R.A., et al.   24

Vastrick, W., B.S.   49

Webb, F.E., M.A.   44

Wellington-Jones, Patricia.   47, III

 

SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS — All citations: listed in alphabetical order

American Law Reports 4.  36:598-610, 1985. Admissibility of evidence as to linguistics or typing style (forensic linguistics) as basis of identification of typists or author.  {In re Estate of Paul Ciaffoni, 498 PA 267, 446 A2 225 (1982), cert den in Cowden v Ciaffoni (1982) 495 US 1036, 74 L Ed 2d 602, 103 S Ct 447}  Donaldson, Russell G.

American Law Reports.  106:721-37, 1937. Questions of evidence in the inspection and examination of typewritten documents and typewriting machines.  {In re Bundy’s Estate, 153 OR 234, 56 P2 313 (1936)}

American Society of Forensic Science Journal.  1:117-20, December 1998. Cause of typewriter printwheel damage observed in the questioned document.  Moryan, Donald D.

Canadian Society of Forensic Science Journal.  16:19-38, March 1983. Differentiation of printwheel and conventional typescript.  Estabrooks, Colin B.

Canadian Society of Forensic Science Journal. 15:42-9, March 1982. “Identifying the Typist of Anonymous Letters.” Dawson, Greg A.

Chicago Legal News.  55:221+, Feb. 1, 1923. Identification of typewritten forgery.

FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin.  29:22, October 1960. Writing standards must be admissible for court testimony.

FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. June 1981. “Examination of a Typewritten Document.” David W. Attenberger and W. Gary Kanaskie.

Forensic Science. 10:187-201, 1977. Interchangeability of single element fonts. Levinson, Jay.

Forensic Science Communications.  1:part 1, Oct. 1999. Source of significant typeface defects on electronic typewriter printwheels. Anthony, Author T.

Forensic Science Communications.  3:#2, April 2001. Handwriting, typewriting, shoeprints, and tire treads:  FBI Laboratory’s Questioned Documents Unit.  Held, Dorothy-Anne E.

Forensic Science International.  13:15-24, Jan-Feb. 1979. Single element typewriters.  Levinson, Jay.

Forensic Science International.  15:141-7, March-April 1980. Mathematical determination of the number of copies of a typewritten document. DelPicchia, Celso Mauro.

Forensic Science International.  21:227-31, May-June 1983. Was a carbon copy also typewritten?  Hilton, Ordway.

Forensic Science International.  30:267-74, April 1986.Progressive damage to plastic printwheel typing elements.  Hardcastle, R. A.

Forensic Science International.  30:53-63, Jan. 1986. Problems in identifying work from print wheel typewriter.  Hilton, Ordway.

Forensic Science International.  43:125-57, Oct.-Nov. 1989. Classification of printwheel typestyles by measuring the size of characters with an image processing system.  An initial evaluation using courier 10 and elite 12 printwheels. Catterick, T., D.A. Hickman, and J.R. Russell

Forensic Science International.  47:249-59, Oct. 1990. Distribution of damage defects among characters of print wheel typing elements. Allen, M. J. and R.A. Hardcastle.

Forensic Science Society. Journal.  30:137-42, May-June 1990. Classification scheme for courier typestyles.  Allen, M. J. and R. A. Hardcastle

Forensic Science Society. Journal.  30:225-41, July-August 1990. Measurement of the alignments of typewritten characters; preliminary findings.  Hardcastle, R. A. and P. Patel.

Identification News.  29:6-10, Nov. 1979. Identification of typewritten documents.  Patel, Purushottam Hathibhai.

International Criminal Police Review.  183:321-5, Dec. 1964. The identification of makes of typewriters. Report to the General Assembly of the I.C.P.O. Interpol at its 33rd session in Caracas on October 6, 1964.

Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology and Police Science.  47:257-9, July-August 1956. Test plate for proportional spacing typewriter examination.  Hilton, Ordway.

Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology and Police Science.  48:219-23, July-Aug. 1957. Identification of typewriting; problems encountered with shaded and proportional alignments. Hilton, Ordway.

Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology and Police Science.  50:420-5, Nov.-Dec. 1959. Influence of variation on typewriting identification.  Hilton, Ordway.

Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology and Police Science.  51:373-7, Sept.-Oct. 1960. Dating typewriting by an analysis of variable defects.  Hilton, Ordway

Journal of Forensic Science.  3:263-87, July 1958. Problems in the identification of proportional spacing typewriting.  Hilton, Ordway.

Journal of Forensic Science.  7:286-302, July 1962. Identification of the work from an IBM Selectric typewriter: A preliminary consideration of the problem.  Hilton, Ordway.

Journal of Forensic Science.  10:23-33, Jan. 1965. A Deep Look Into Typewriter Alignment.  Nemecek, Joe.

Journal of Forensic Science.  32:245-7, Jan. 1987. Was the document reinserted in the typewriter?  Horan, James J.

Journal of Forensic Sciences. 32:629-639, May 1987. “Printwheel Typescript Variations Caused by the Manufacturing Process.” Behrendt, James E. and Robert J. Muehlberger.

Journal of Forensic Sciences. 33:328-335, March 1988. “Class Defects in Printwheel Typescript.” James E. Behrendt.

Journal of Police Science and Administration.  1:303-10, Sept. 1973. Method of indicating the manufacturer of courier style type fonts.  Cromwell, Douglas.

Journal of Police Science and Administration.  4:134-78, June 1976. Differentiation of pica monotone typewriting.  Crown, David A.

Journal of Police Science and Administration.  5:393-8, Dec. 1977. Explainable differences revealed by supplementary typewriting standards. Osborn, Paul A.

Scientific Sleuthing Review.  22:10-3, Spring 1998. The F.B.I. in peace and war and typewriter examination:  Who is to blame for Robert Wayne O’Ferrell’s ordeal?  {O’Ferrell v U.S. and Brannan, 968 FS 1519 (D.M.D. AL 1997)}  In search of a search warrant:  What might/should have happened in U.S. v Robert Wayne and Mary Ann O’Ferrell?  {U.S. v Moody, 762 FS 1485, 762 FS 1491 (N.D. GA 1991}