Extreme Grips, An Annotated Bibliography

Compiled by Jacqueline Joseph, D-BFDE

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THE ANATOMY COLORING BOOK. Wynn Kapit and Lawrence M. Elson. Canfield Press, San Francisco, CA, 1977. A book of illustrated charts identifying all the details of human anatomy. An excellent learning tool defining human anatomy and how everything works.

BOOK SMARTS (CD) Collection of Published Works by Marcel B. Matley. 2007.

DRUGS AND HANDWRITING. Patricia Wellingham-Jones. PWJ Publications, Tehama, CA, 1991. An excellent guide to the effects medications have on handwriting.

EXPERIMENTS WITH HANDWRITING. Robert Saudek. George Allen & Unwin, London, 1929.  Reprinted by Books For Professionals, Sacramento, CA, 1978. The author conducted and recorded extensive and carefully controlled handwriting experiments. Saudek lays forth the most comprehensive fundamentals in experimental handwriting research.  Fully illustrated. “Suffice it to say that if one does not know Saudek, one does not know handwriting. If one knows Saudek, and properly understands, one begins to know handwriting in a scientific way.”  Quote by Marcel B. Matley

FORGED, ANONYMOUS, AND SUSPECT DOCUMENTS. Captain Arthur J. Quirke. George Routledge & Sons, Ltd., London, 1930. Vertical and lateral expansion are discussed (pp. 31-40), and individuality of handwriting including muscular actions of the thumb and fingers as illustrated in the act of writing an oval letter form with a variety of pen-holds.  The movements of the fingers, hand and arm in conjunction with the muscular tension and release functions are discussed with regard to seeing line quality in handwriting.

GENUINE TREMOR IN HANDWRITING VS. THE TREMOR OF FRAUD. Jacqueline A. Joseph, CDE. An annotated bibliography as it relates to questioned document examination. JT Research, Portland, OR, 2000.

THE HAND: HOW ITS USE SHAPES THE BRAIN, LANGUAGE, AND HUMAN CULTURE. Frank R. Wilson. Pantheon Books, NY, 1998. Wilson is a neurologist with a fascination for the human hand. He illuminates how our hands influence learning, shape our development – cognitive, emotional, linguistic, and psychological – in light of the most recent research being done in anthropology, neuroscience, linguistics, and psychology.  Includes a thorough discussion of a variety of grips. Excellent illustrations, photos and charts.

HANDWRITING, BIOMECHANICS AND SIGNIFICANCE: FROM FREEMAN TO THE SMART-PEN. Emily J. Will. A presentation to NADE, May 2000. A discussion of hand positions and movements observed in the written trace based on the work of Frank N. Freeman and Robert Saudek. Includes an illustrated discussion of the arc of the letter “d” as a graphic indicator of movement and speed.

THE HANDWRITING MOVEMENT. Frank N. Freeman. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Ill, 1914. This is a fundamental work illustrating the results of various hand positions as seen in the written trace.  Freeman discusses effects of finger/hand coordination in writing, effects of pronation of the hand, pressure, speed and more.   Many helpful illustrations.

HEALTH AND HANDWRITING: Annotated Bibliography of Forensic, Legal and Med/Psych Periodical Literature. 3rd ed. Marcel B. Matley. Handwriting Experts of California, San Francisco, CA, 2000. The annotated references include books, journal articles and case law.

MIND/BODY CONNECTION, THE: NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL BASIS FOR HANDWRITING. 2nd ed. Patricia Wellingham-Jones. PWJ Publications, Tehama, CA, 1989. Considered a behavioral science, handwriting is illustrated as a physiological link between behavior and gesture. Fully illustrated, extensive bibliography.

OH, MY ACHING ARM! Cause and Cure of General Writer’s Cramp: A monograph in the physiology of handwriting. Marcel B. Matley. Handwriting Services of California. San Francisco, CA, 1997.  Basic anatomy, grip and grasp of the pen and physiology of handwriting are discussed simply and clearly illustrated. Includes an annotated bibliography and Matley’s thought-provoking essay about the psychology of free choice with regard to impairments pertaining to grip, and to life in general.

RELIABILITY TESTING OF EXPERT HANDWRITING OPINIONS. Marcel B. Matley. Handwriting Services of California. San Francisco, CA,1992. This supreme monograph provides a multi-faceted approach for the examiner to test his/her opinion in order to answer a variety of possible attacks regarding the opinion’s reliability.  This comprehensive work assists examiners in anticipating, addressing, and defusing most possible attacks beforehand by doing a reliability test of their opinion. Includes definitions of identification theory, terminology (singular occurrence, significant difference, entire graphic activity, etc.) and types of forgery. Also includes illustrative cases, hypothetical questions, bibliography, and detailed key word index. 150 pages.

THE TRACKER: THE STORY OF TOM BROWN, JR. William Jon Watkins. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1978. One man’s life-long experience examining the tracks of animals, birds and insects including forensic cases.  As in handwriting examination, what remains as an artifact of movement (human or otherwise) can be immensely informative to the tracker about what, when and how something moved to leave the track.

TREATISE ON DISPUTED HANDWRITING. William E. Hagan. Banks & Brothers, Albany, NY, 1894. This is one of the fundamental and comprehensive works on writing habits as manifested in handwriting.  Hagan discusses forgeries, disguised handwriting, and effect of age, disease and excitement on handwriting and signatures.


Periodical Literature

AHAF JOURNAL. 31:8-12, Nov.-Dec. 1998. “The Dilemma Of Ataxic Handwriting.” By Matley, Marcel B. (See attached)

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY. 44:736-40, Aug. 1990. “Incidence Of Atypical Pencil Grasps [Writing] Among Non-Dysfunctional Adults.” By Bergman, Kerstin P.

Ibid. 44:893-900, Oct. 1990. “Descriptive Analysis Of The Developmental Progression Of Grip [Writing] Position For Pencil And Crayon Control In Non-Dysfunctional Children.” By Schneck, Colleen M. and Henderson, Anne

BRITISH JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY. 111:841-58, Sept. 1965. “Psychosomatic Study Of Writer’s Cramp.” By Crisp, A. H. An excellent article discussing the emotional basis of situational and habitual writer’s cramp. A fascinating historical review of writer’s cramp is detailed. Includes stories of cases of extreme situations resulting in the use of extreme grips such as a writer holding the pen between his thumb and 5th finger in a contorted manner. Extensive bibliography and charts.

CANADIAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY. 25:44-8, Feb. 1980. “Behavioral And Biofeedback Treatment Of Writer’s Cramp.” By Furlong, F. W. Writer’s cramp due to an abnormally hard grip is discussed regarding a clinical study and findings of a thirty-seven year old male. Includes illustrated samples of his writing before and after treatments of biofeedback sessions and writing exercises.

HUMAN MOVEMENT SCIENCE. 10:223-45, 1991. “The Control Of Pen Pressure In Handwriting; A Subtle Point.” By Wann, John and Nimmo-Smith, Ian.

INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL POLICE REVIEW. 464:27-9, 1997. “Quantitative Evaluation Of Hand Pressure By Two-Dimensional Measurement Of Surface Roughness.” By Buquet, Alain.  A new piece of equipment (1997) known as a “profilometer” is discussed regarding how to measure the stroke pressure (exerted by the hand or fingers) in handwriting which reflects the graphic strength of the writer.  Illustrated.

INTERNATIONAL HANDWRITING ANALYSIS REVIEW. 2:48-52, Winter 2003. “Simultaneous Ambidexterity And Other Uncommon Writing Abilities.” By Joseph, Jacqueline A. Includes illustration of writing adapted due to partially deformed and paralyzed dominant writing hand and fingers. Includes bibliography.

JOURNAL OF CRIMINAL LAW, CRIMINOLOGY AND POLICE SCIENCE. 56:528-39, Dec.1965. “Behavior Factors In Handwriting Identification.” By Naftali, A.

JOURNAL OF FORENSIC DOCUMENT EXAMINATION. 5:1-33, Fall 1992. “Dynamics Of The Writing Movement:  Physical Modeling And Practical Application.” By Hardy, H. J. J.

Ibid.  7:51-6, Fall 1994. “Changes In Arm And Hand Position In Writing.” By Wellingham-Jones, Patricia.

JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES. 41:634-40, July 1996. “The Application Of Reasoning To The Evaluation Of Fundamental Differences In Handwriting Comparisons.” By Whiting, Floyd. This excellent article discusses aspects of the cardinal tenet of forensic document examination that the existence of a single fundamental difference between questioned and known handwriting samples is a basis for excluding the samples as having come from a common source.  Includes case reports, illustrations and bibliography.

JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE. 22(7):2816-25, April 1, 2002. “Long-Term Consequences Of Switching Handedness: A Positron Emission Tomography Study On Handwriting In “Converted” Left-Handers.” By Sibener, Hartwig R.; Limmer, Claus; Peinemann, Alexander; Drzezga, Alexander; Bloem, Bastiaan R.; Schwaiger, Markus; Conrad, Bastian.

LANCET. 8309:1220, Nov. 27, 1982. “Writer’s Cramp.” By Simmons, V. P. Includes a good definition of writer’s cramp.

MEDICINE SCIENCE AND THE LAW. 15:167-71, July 1975. “Direction Of Pen Motion: Effects On The Written Line.” By Fryd, C. F. M.

NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF DOCUMENT EXAMINERS JOURNAL. 12:1-6, May 1991. “Interpreting The Writing Movement For Identification Purposes.” By Koppenhaver, Katherine M.

Ibid. 27:1, 17-21, Fall 2004. “Annotated Bibliography – Left-Hand And Opposite-Hand Writing Features Useful As A Basis Of Forming Expert Opinions Of Authorship.” By Joseph, Jacqueline A.

PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN. 91:589-608, 1982. “Handwriting Posture And Cerebral Organization: How Are They Related?” By Levy, Jerre.

SCIENCE & JUSTICE. 35:165-8, July-Sept. 1995. “A Study Of Two Cases Of Unaccustomed Handwriting.” By Singh, Amar and Gupta, S.N. This article illustrates comparative features of one person’s normal writing and unaccustomed-hand writing which were both observed on a single document.  Authors discuss the indications of common authorship that became the basis of their expert opinion that the body of the writing was written with the normal hand, and the endorsements were written with the unaccustomed hand of the same person.  Illustrations are in Hindi, therefore not easy to discern. Includes bibliography.

SURGICAL NEUROLOGY. 31:133-7, Feb. 1989. “Cause And Cure Of Some Cases Of Writer’s Cramp.” By Murphy F. A.  This is an excellent article with an extensive bibliography and many illustrations. Case studies of patients with writer’s cramp are detailed with regard to muscular interactions, contractions, weaknesses and overcompensations.

YALE PSYCHOLOGY LABORATORY STUDIES. 8:21-63, 1900. “Researches On Movements Used In Handwriting.” By McAllister, C. N.